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Some New Research into the Effects of Cajeput Oil in Inhibiting the Development of COVID-19

Its very early days but some new research has just been published in Chemistry Europe which has shown some promising results in the efforts to find natural means of combating SARS-CoV-2, which is the virus which causes the COVID-19 disease.

Cajeput Oil has been shown to have an inhibitory capability which prevents the SARS‐CoV‐2 virus from docking with the Angiotensin‐Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein which is a natural protein in the human body and the host receptor for SARS‐CoV‐2. This docking process is the means by which the SARS‐CoV‐2 virus embeds itself in the human body and by entering the ACE2 protein cells, starts its replication process.

The main protein at the heart of the SARS‐CoV‐2 virus is the protease (PDB6LU7). This also proved to dock readily with active ingredients from Cajeput essential oil, rendering the protein nonviable and then destroying it.

The results indicate that the ACE2 and PDB6LU7 proteins were strongly inhibited by 4 out of 24 active ingredients accounting for 70.9% of the active ingredients by volume in Cajeput Oil. The most powerful Cajeput active ingredients effective against the SARS‐CoV‐2 virus are shown below:

  • Terpineol – Terpineol is a monoterpene alcohol found in several essential oils such as Petitgrain (Citrus bergamia) and Pine (Pinus sylvestris)oil.
  • Guaiol – Guaiol is a Sesquiterpene alcohol also found in Helichrysum (Helichrysum italicum) and Yarrow (Achillea millefolium)
  • Linalool – a Monoterpene alcohol also found in Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and Rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora) amongst others
  • Cineol – A Monoterpene Oxide also found in Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus)and Helichrysum (Helichrysum italicum)

Interestingly, it is the synergistic interactions of these active ingredients of the essential oil which exhibit excellent inhibition into the ACE2 and PDB6LU7 proteins.

In case of any suspicion (either with or without symptoms), of having caught COVID-19, it is recommended that 3 drops of essential oil of Cajeput on a handkerchief or in a dry diffuser* are inhaled up to 5 times a day for 3 days.

* The virus propagates within a moist environment so it is recommended not to use a water vapour diffuser (just in case…)

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Sadly, I’m Not Surprised….

According to the latest UN report, the UK continues to be the main exporter of medical cannabis worldwide, producing 19.7 tons, or 77.8 per cent of global exports of medical cannabis in 2018. In comparison, the Netherlands produced 3.0 tons, or 11.9 per cent of global exports, followed by Canada; 1.8 tons, or 6.9 per cent.

British Sugar saw the writing on the wall for sugar production in 2016 and wisely, they diversified. They were granted a licence to cultivate medicinal cannabis in their 18-hectare greenhouse facility in Norfolk, UK.

The company won a contract with the UK-based GW Pharmaceuticals who sell Cannabis-based drugs Savitax and Epidiolex, the latter of which was approved for use by the FDA in the USA. The UK followed suit in 2019. Epidiolex is now the only Cannabis-based medicine which can be prescribed in the UK. This was happening at the same time that the Conservative government was insisting that cannabis had “no recognised medical benefits”.

The Managing Director of British Sugar, Paul Kenward, is married to British Conservative MP and former drugs minister, Victoria Atkins who is firmly against de-criminalising cannabis. Theresa May’s husband, Philip May, works for the company that owns the largest stake in GW Pharmaceuticals.

The British government’s party line on cannabis remains that it is “a dangerous street drug with no accepted medicinal value”, whilst they are licensing and supporting the monopolisation of cannabis cultivation by private multinational corporations to grow the crop in the UK and export it worldwide.

Whilst cannabis use is still stigmatised in the UK, big businesses with links to the Government are mass producing the drug with little or no competition possible, and are then able to take advantage of the countries and states across the world that have legalised cannabis, leading to an export bonanza for a tiny minority who have benefitted from convenient concessions and licenses. British Sugar’s operation, hidden out in the East Anglian countryside, produces the majority of these exports.

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Efficacy of Essential Oils against COVID-19 (Corona Virus)

There has been a considerable number of articles written about the usefulness of essential oils in the face of the COVID-19 virus pandemic. This purpose of this article is to separate truth from fiction.

Essential Oils will kill COVID-19 virus cells: False

Essential Oils will not cure COVID-19.

Whilst some essential oils provide some protective properties against many viruses, nothing is known for certain about COVID-19 because so far, there have been no scientific studies investigating the effect of any essential oil on COVID-19. No essential oil acts as a viral cure but research into their anti-viral properties can help drugs researchers prepare anti-viral pharmaceuticals which may have curative properties against viruses in the body.

Essential Oils can protect against viruses and have anti-viral effects: True

There are many research papers in existence from numerous different research bodies which document the results of research programmes investigating the antiviral properties of numerous essential oils. The results are impressive, and in many cases, incontrovertible. The following are viruses for which we have reliable data:

  • SARS Severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by a coronavirus. A severe form of pneumonia that appeared in outbreaks in 2003. SARS-CoV.
  • Influenza H1N1 
  • Avian influenza (Bird Flu) H5N1 and sub-types H7N3 and H9N2
  • Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV)
  • Dengue Virus (DEN)
  • Virulent Newcastle disease (NDV), formerly exotic Newcastle disease, is a contagious viral avian disease affecting many domestic and wild bird species
  • Herpes Simplex HSV
  • Argentine Haemorrhagic Virus (AHV) also known as Junin Virus
  • West Nile Virus (WNV)

A Few Examples of Essential Oil Actions against Viruses

  • Tea Tree Oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) inhibits replication of virus cells of Influenza A⁄PR ⁄ 8 virus subtype H1N1 to 0,0006% (v ⁄ v)1. It is active against HSV-1 and HSV-2 to 0,0008% (v/v)2.
  • Eucalyptus Oil (Eucalyptus globulus) works actively against HSV-1 and HSV-2 to 0,009% and 0,008% respectively3.
  • Tea Tree Oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) works against Avian (Bird) Flu H5N1 and sub-types H7N3 and H9N2 with a single dose of 10 μl4.
  • Tea Tree Oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) and Eucalyptus Oil (Eucalyptus globulus) used in aerosols as a disinfectant against Influenza A and Phage M13 of E. Coli. The two oils combined were found capable of inactivating more than 95% of the virus in 5 to 15 minutes of exposure.

There are published Scientific Research Papers on the efficacy of Essential Oils in treating viruses: TRUE

It should however be recognised that the bulk of published research is carried out in vitro – which means in the laboratory. Large clinical trials have been done as part of some research programmes but many which have carried out in vivo research have been limited in their numbers of participants. Much research published has not been peer reviewed or replicated across other laboratories. That being said, there is a considerable body of many thousands of peer-reviewed research papers published showing the results of research into Essential Oils which are available on the web. Many of these can be found through reputable publishing bodies such as :

  • World Journal of Pharmaceutical research
  • Journal of Essential Oil Research
  • International Journal of Clinical Aromatherapy
  • Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics
  • Phytotherapy Research
  • European Journal of Applied Physiology
  • International Journal of Neurosciences
  • Global Journal of Medical Research
  • Molecules
  • The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine
  • ResearchGate – is an online facility for following research into areas on interest on the net.https://www.researchgate.net/
  • PubMed is a similar online facility to ResearchGate https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/

For example, see the list at the end of this article for a short extract from the list of published research papers addressing the anti-viral properties of Tea Tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), Niaouli (Melaleuca viridiflora), Ho Wood (Cinnamomum camphora) or Ravintsara (Cinnamomum camphora) essential oils.

Essential oils are not an alternative to isolation and hand washing. Some such as Tea Tree Oil (Melaleuca alternifolia), Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) and Ho Wood (Cinnamomum camphora) or Ravintsara (Cinnamomum camphora) do have anti-viral properties and are, as a consequence, useful weapons in the battle to stay safe from Corona Virus but they are not cures. They will not cure someone who has become infected with COVID-19 and nor will they prevent cross-infections at close quarters. They can help in disinfecting an area when applied in an aerosol and they are useful additions to soaps, shampoos and hand sanitisers. They may even help support the immune system in fighting the virus – although there is no proof of this.

In addition, they are invaluable in helping people to adapt to the different circumstances in which we are currently living. Many oils such as Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), Neroli (Citrus aurantium), CBD (Cannabis sativa) have strong anti-anxiety effects and can help people to relax, feel a little bit reassured and pampered which is something which can only help in these anxious times.

I hope this article helps. If anyone wants to ask questions, I will answer them as well as I can. Stay safe people and don’t rely on inaccurate and misleading information. Follow Government guidelines and stay away from as many sources of infection as possible. And above all don’t fall for the scams which are popping up all over the place offering cures.

For recipes for hand sanitisers, shampoos and soaps see our recipes page, https://www.bloomingcbd.uk/resources/

A short Extract from a Long List of Published Research into Essential Oils and their Properties

  1. Garozzo, A., Timpanaro, R., Bisignano, B., Furneri, P. M., Bisignano, G., & Castro, A. (2009). In vitro antiviral activity of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil. Letters in applied microbiology, 49(6), 806-808.
  2. Reichling, J., Schnitzler, P., Suschke, U., & Saller, R. (2009). Essential oils of aromatic plants with antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and cytotoxic properties–an overview. Complementary Medicine Research, 16(2), 79-90.
  3. Schnitzler, P., Schon, K. and Reichling, J. (2001) Antiviral activity of Australian tea tree oil and eucalyptus oil against herpes simplex virus in cell culture. Pharmazie 56, 343–347.
  4. Mohammad, A., & Mehmood, D. In Vivo Anti-Viral Effect of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree Oil) and Olea europaea (Olive Leaf Extract) on Vero Cell Adapted Avian Influenza Virus. Human Journals. Research Article December 2018 Vol.:14, Issue:1 Citation: Mohammad Danish Mehmood et al. Ijppr.Human, 2018; Vol. 14 (1): 7-19.
  5. Usachev, E. V., Pyankov, O. V., Usacheva, O. V., & Agranovski, I. E. (2013). Antiviral activity of Tea Tree and Eucalyptus oil aerosol and vapour. Journal of aerosol science, 59, 22-30.
  6. Ankita, S., Chandra, S. S., & Arti, T. (2013). Phytochemical study and antimicrobial activities of Cinnamomum camphora. World Journal of Pharmaceutical research Volume 3, Issue 2, 2287-2294
  7. Astani, A., & Schnitzler, P. (2014). Antiviral activity of monoterpenes beta-pinene and limonene against herpes simplex virus in vitro. Iranian journal of microbiology, 6(3), 149.
  8. Astani, A., Reichling, J., & Schnitzler, P. (2010). Comparative study on the antiviral activity of selected monoterpenes derived from essential oils.Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives, 24(5), 673-679.
  9. Bisignano, B. (2009). Attività antivirale e studio del meccanismo d’azione di estratti di Melaleuca alternifolia nei vonfronti del virus dell’influenza A. Area 06 – Scienze mediche. http://hdl.handle.net/10761/1767
  10. Blanchard, J. M. (2007). Cinnamomum camphora à cinéole (ravintsara), une plante au service de la prévention des infections nosocomiales en milieu hospitalier?. Phytothérapie, 5(1), 15-20.
  11. Carson, C.F., Ashton, L., Dry, L., Smith, D.W. and Riley, T.V. (2001) Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil gel (6%) for the treatment of recurrent herpes labialis. J Antimicrob Chemother 48, 450–451.
  12. Carson, C.F., Smith, D.W., Lampacher, G.J. and Riley, T.V. (2008) Use of deception to achieve double-blinding in a clinical trial of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil for the treatment of recurrent herpes labialis. Contemp Clin Trials 29, 9–12.
  13. C. F. Carson, K. A. Hammer, and T. V. Riley Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) Oil: a Review of Antimicrobial and Other Medicinal Properties Clin Microbiol Rev. 2006 Jan; 19(1): 50–62.
  14. Galan, D. M., Ezeudu, N. E., Garcia, Jasmine, Geronimo, Chalice A, Berry, Nicholas M. & Malcolm, B. J. (2020). Eucalyptol (1, 8-cineole): an underutilized ally in respiratory disorders?. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 1-8.
  15. Garozzo, A., Timpanaro, R., Stivala, A., Bisignano, G., & Castro, A. (2011). Activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil on Influenza virus A/PR/8: study on the mechanism of action. Antiviral research, 89(1), 83-88.
  16. Hamidpour, R., Hamidpour, S., Hamidpour, M., & Shahlari, M. (2014). Chemistry, Pharmacology and Medicinal Property of Camphor (Cinnamomum Camphora) Traditional Remedy with the History of Treating Several Diseases. Global Journal of Medical Research.
  17. Jean Michel Blanchard (2007). Cinnamomum camphora CT cineole (ravintsara), a plant to help prevent nosocomial infections in the hospital environment. International Journal of Clinical Aromatherapy Vol. 4 issue 1
  18. Li, X., Duan, S., Chu, C., Xu, J., Zeng, G., Lam, A. K. Y., … & Gu, H. (2013). Melaleuca alternifolia concentrate inhibits in vitro entry of influenza virus into host cells. Molecules, 18(8), 9550-9566.
  19. Li, Y., Xu, Y. L., … & Xu, P. P. (2017). Intranasal co-administration of 1, 8-cineole with influenza vaccine provide cross-protection against influenza virus infection. Phytomedicine, 34, 127-135.
  20. Loizzo, M. R., Saab, A. M., Tundis, R., Statti, G. A., Menichini, F., Lampronti, I., … & Doerr, H. W. (2008). Phytochemical analysis and in vitro antiviral activities of the essential oils of seven Lebanon species. Chemistry & biodiversity, 5(3), 461-470.
  21. Mansard, M., Laurain-Mattar, D., & Couic-Marinier, F. (2019). Huile essentielle de Ravintsara. Actualités Pharmaceutiques, 58(585), 57-59.
  22. Morales-Rico, C. L., … & González-Camejo, I. (2012). Composición química del aceite esencial de las partes aéreas de Melaleuca quinquenervia. Revista CENIC. Ciencias Químicas, 43, 1-2.
  23. Müller, J. et al. (2016). 1, 8-Cineole potentiates IRF3-mediated antiviral response in human stem cells and in an ex vivo model of rhinosinusitis. Clinical Science, 130(15), 1339-1352.
  24. Riley, T. V. (2005). Antiviral Activity of Tea Tree Oil–In Vitro and In Vivo. TV Riley – 2005 – academia.edu
  25. Siddique, S., et al. (2018). Chemical characterization, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil from Melaleuca quinquenervia leaves. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 56, 686-693.
  26. Timpanaro, R., Garozzo, A., Bisignano, B., Stivala, A., Furneri, P. M., Tempera, G., & Castro, A. (2007). Inhibitory effect of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil) on influenza A/PR/8 virus replication. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, (29), S202-S203.
  27. Worth, H., ..& Dethlefsen, U. (2009). Concomitant therapy with Cineole (Eucalyptole) reduces exacerbations in COPD: a placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Respiratory research, 10(1), 69.
  28. Yang, Z., Wu, N., .. & Efferth, T. (2010). Anti-infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) activity of 1, 8-cineole: Effect on nucleocapsid (N) protein. Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics, 28(3), 323-330.
  29. Zamora, A. C. P. (2015). The Antiviral Properties of Melaleuca alternifolia concentrate (MAC) against West Nile virus (Doctoral dissertation, Griffith University).
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BBC, New York Times Magazine and CBD

The BBC is getting in on the CBD phenomenon. The following are a couple of reports from their current affairs teams.

https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/av/uk-politics-51210239/cbd-oil-helps-me-cope-with-my-anxiety

https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-48950483

They aren’t the only ones. The New York Times Magazine has already done an in-depth article on CBD. It is very USA focused as you would expect but it gives a fair bit of the history of Cannabis usage and abusage in the USA a well as some of the history of research into the plant and its rich source of cannabinoids.

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/05/14/magazine/cbd-cannabis-cure.html?fbclid=IwAR0ySVQiUt9pEzX1Z0wPk1KxusIl9KxtRsSOnQvpIjLm4MrVkx-JkmPWO5A

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CBD Investment

The current state of the CBD market is chaotic. CBD is legal in the UK and many other countries. However in the UK it has to be sold as a nutrition supplement rather than a complementary therapy. This means that it is impossible to advertise what uses or potential uses it may have. Pressure to improve the situation must come from a number of different directions including the acceptance of medical research by bodies such as NICE and MHRA ( Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency ) under its new Chief Executive Dr June Raine.

The most effective way to regulate the position of any new market is the pressure of money and already there are numerous solid companies around the world producing, researching and selling CBD and Cannabis products in a market already worth nearly $30billion. As well as these companies directly involved with the product there is an entire infrastructure market developing to service this unfolding market. This involves companies which sell the equipment to distill and produce CBD products; companies which sell the software to retail the products; companies which fund the research and development of new products; companies which analyse and assess the quality of the plant material and resulting products and venture capital companies which fund the investment in all stages of the market. All of this helps to solidify the Cannabis sativa market against political decisions which affect everyone including customers who use the products. The more people (i.e. voters) involved in this directly, who have investments in these companies, the more likely politicians are likely to listen.

Unfortunately, as this market is rapidly unfolding and company results cannot be published in many markets such as NASDAQ, information is scarce. For those of us who would wish to invest, how do we choose which companies deserve our investment? Which provide or are likely to provide the best returns on our investments? Which companies look to have a solid corporate structure, good cash and investment management, good products and a loyal customer base? One person who has made it her business to find out as much as possible about this emerging market is Debra Borchardt – founder and editor in chief of Greenmarketsreport.com

The Investopedia Academy has put together a free webinar in which Debra discusses the emerging market and some of the players. I found it fascinating and although I have already invested quite considerably in this market, I have decided to widen my investments based on her information. To watch the webinar click on the following link and then choose the webinar name Strategy Session: Cannabis Investing. You will need to log in to view the webinar for free.

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Hello world!

Welcome to Blooming Oils’ CBD web site. We will offer a wide range of Oral CBD products as well as our Massage Range which includes different strengths of CBD and essential oils. As this page is in its infancy please bear with us while we develop it to show our full range of products and options.

If there is something in particular you would like but don’t see it on our web page yet, please contact us to let us know as we may have what you are looking for but haven’t yet managed to put it onto our web pages.

Our full rage of essential oils, absolutes, carrier oils and infused oils can be found on our sister web site www.bloomingoils.com.